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Roll Forging

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Introduction to Roll Forging

Roll forging is a popular metal forming process used to deform and shape metal into predetermined shapes. It is commonly used to shape gears, shafts, discs and other components from heated bars or tubes. Roll forging involves passing the metal between two or three rotating rolls with specially shaped grooves in them. As the workpiece gets formed and compressed it takes on the desired shape.

The process works with almost any type of metal as long it is forging grade (has good forgeability). This includes ferrous metals like steel and iron as well as non-ferrous alloys such as stainless steel, aluminum, brass and copper. Roll forging can help reduce costs because it is relatively cheap compared to machining processes, requires minimal setup and produces less waste material that needs to be discarded.

Benefits of Roll Forging

Roll forging is a powerful, cost-efficient process that has many advantages and benefits over other metal forging techniques. It has the capability of producing parts with higher strength and more uniformity than traditional forging, while also providing greater control in terms of dimensional accuracy. Roll forging can offer superior surface finishes and highly reduced scrap rates which results in savings on material costs. Since it is a cold working process it helps in energy conservation as well. Roll forged products are also immune to thermal distortions, and have increased fatigue life due to precise helical angles achievable with this technique. Roll forging can moreover increase the wear resistance of wearable components like cutting tools or sprockets where high levels of precision are needed for high speed operation at lower cost. Finally, roll forging requires less machine setup and tooling requirements than other metal forming processes, offering further savings over traditional stamping or machining options.

Step-by-Step Process

  1. For the process to begin, a metal piece must be placed between two rotating rollers.
  2. The rollers will start rolling against the metal piece and pinch it inside them.
  3. While the rollers are continuing to rotate against each other, they are being pressed down against the metal piece which will cause pre-compression.
  4. Before reaching its final shape, usually, the pressure is switched to lateral direction and through reduction in circumference, is “rolled up” producing a crescent shape while maintaining uniform section.
  5. The above process can be repeated numerous times until it reaches its desired diameter or length depending on what is required.
  6. Once finished with rolling and forging, the final product will show characteristic like high fatigue strength/micro hardness along with improved surface finish as compared to that of hot forging or machining methods.

Challenges of Roll Forging

One of the primary challenges that can be encountered during roll forging is excessive oxide scale on the surface of the material. This could lead to a poor finish, weak welds, and poor internal and external combustion quality. In order to overcome this challenge, it is necessary to ensure that material surfaces are adequately cleaned and degreased prior to rolling, or applying a lubricant during rolling.

Another challenge is stock distortion. This can occur when too much pressure or heat is applied during any part of the process. To prevent this from happening, it is important to ensure that temperatures stay consistent throughout the entire rolling process, as well as ensuring an appropriate compaction ratio. Furthermore, using rolls with a lower profile or less aggressive designs can also help reduce these issues.

Finally, incorrect die/roller alignment can lead to unsatisfactory results in terms of product shape or size. In order to prevent such misalignment, it is important to use diamond tipped tools when hollowing out cavities in dies or rollers, align them correctly before tightening down onto the shafts, test activities after assembly into predetermined clearance dimensions and running dummy passes over non-ferrous metal under controlled conditions prior to production operations.

Examples of Roll Forging

Roll forging is a metal forming process in which material is passed between two cylindrical rolls, causing it to change shape as the volume increases. The roll forging process can be used to create complex shapes and superior surface finishes that are not possible with other conventional metal forming processes.

One example of roll forging is the creation of tire rims for passenger vehicles. When compared to die-casting or spinning, roll forging produces higher quality results which creates a stronger, lighter wheel rim resistant to deformation. This translates into increased durability and safety for drivers who use the vehicle.

Another example of roll forging is in aircraft manufacturing for hydraulic landing gear components such as shock absorbers, movement brackets, bearings and valve body parts. Roll forging offers improved design features in terms of accuracy tolerance within close machining limits and superior surface finishes, which ensure structural integrity when exposed to extreme temperatures and pressure levels during flight operations.

In short, roll forging demonstrates considerable advantages over other more conventional metal forming processes and can be used in a wide range of applications where quality materials are expected and exceeding them is essential.


What is roll forging?

Roll forging is a manufacturing process in which metal is worked by passing it through two or more cylinders (called rolls) at a predetermined speed. The force applied to the metal causes it to plastically deform, forming a cross-section until its final shape is achieved. By changing the size and shape of the rolls, complex parts can be created with high repeatability.

What types of metals are used in roll forging?

Roll forging can be used on many different types of metals including steel, aluminum, brass, titanium, and others. The metal needs to be malleable enough so that it can take on the desired shape when passed through a set of rolls.

How does roll forging differ from other types of metal shaping processes?

Unlike processes such as casting, extruding, and stamping, roll forging does not require additional metal to maintain any specific shape – only force is required to work the metal into its new form. This means less waste and higher efficiency than other shaping processes. Additionally, since the finishing happens during rolling of the material, no post-finishing operations are needed for most applications.


Roll forging is an efficient and important process because it allows materials to be cold-worked into pre-determined shapes and sizes with a minimum of waste. It also combines forming and finishing operations in one pass, resulting in quick production speeds and high production output. Roll forging also tends to produce superior strength components compared to conventional techniques. Additionally, roll forging typically requires no prior heat treatment, making it a very cost-effective process compared to hot forging. Potential areas for growth in the application of roll forging include the automotive industry, power transmission, consumer products manufacturing, and aerospace engineering. This is due to its numerous advantages such as quick delivery times, improved strength and reliability, affordability, sustainability, and scalability of production.

EXCEL FORGING is a reputed manufacturer of forging and fully CNC turned Components. We export it to various county including USA, UK, Germany, Italy, France, Russia, Dubai and many more We are among the few ISO 9001:2015 registered CNC auto parts manufacturer form India. We manufacture custom forging parts and spares for various companies as per their requirement. Having 3 decades of experience, we ensure the best quality metals, materials and return on any flawed supplies or orders.

We specialize in manufacturing precision turned components as per client’s design requirements at cost-effective prices.

Contact Excel Forging for any type of precision turned components inquiry from INDIA.

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