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Open Die Forging Vs. Closed Die Forging

Forging is a metalworking process which shapes metal into a desired shape using compressive force. Open die forging and closed die forging are two types of forging which use different techniques to shape the metal.

Open die forging involves hammering and pressing to shape the metal, while closed die forging uses a die – a pre-shaped cavity – to shape the metal. In this article, we’ll discuss the differences between open die forging and closed die forging.

You’ll gain insight into the techniques used for each process and the advantages and disadvantages of each method.


Ready to learn the difference between two types of forging? Let’s dive in!

Open die forging and closed die forging are two common types of forgings used in metalworking operations. Open die forgings involve applying direct pressure to a piece of metal or steel, causing it to conform to the shape of the die. This process results in a grain flow that follows the contours of the die, giving the finished product a unique shape.

Closed die forgings, on the other hand, involve placing the material in a precision-machined die, and then using pressure to form the metal into a desired shape. These forgings are typically used to create components with more intricate shapes and higher production tolerances.

One of the main differences between open die and closed die forging is the dimensional accuracy and tolerances. Open die forging can create parts with a wider variety of shapes than closed die forging, and can also be used to produce components with higher tolerances.

Closed die forgings, however, are typically better for producing parts with very tight tolerances and precise dimensions. This makes them the ideal choice for certain applications, such as aerospace and automotive components.

Another difference between the two types of forging is the amount of time and cost involved. Open die forging typically requires less time and labor than closed die forging, making it a more cost-effective option for many applications.

Closed die forging, on the other hand, can be more costly, as it typically requires more time and specialized equipment.

Open die and closed die forging are both important processes used in metalworking operations. Open die forging is often used for larger parts and components, while closed die forging is often used for smaller parts and components with very tight tolerances.

Depending on the application, one type of forging may be more suitable than the other, so it’s important to consider the specific needs of the project before deciding which one to use.

What Is Open-Die Forging

Open-die forging has both advantages and disadvantages that must be considered.

On one hand, it’s a cost-effective way to create large and thick parts from metals, while allowing for additional customization.

On the other hand, it’s a labor-intensive process that requires specialized equipment and specific skills.

It’s important to weigh both the pros and cons when deciding if open-die forging is the right solution for your project.

Pros of Open-Die Forging

Forget the same old forging methods – open-die forging has some serious advantages!

Open die forging has a number of benefits compared to closed die forging, including:

  • Economical: Open die forging can use less tooling and raw materials than closed die forging, leading to lower tooling costs and prices for the final product.
  • Flexible production: Open die forging can be used to produce complex products that cannot be produced with closed die forgings.
  • Surface finish: Open die forgings can provide a better surface finish than cold forgings, allowing for a wider range of product applications.

Cons of Open-Die Forging

Are you considering using open-die forging for your project? It’s important to consider the drawbacks before making a decision – let’s take a look at some of the cons of open-die forging.

Open-die forging is not as precise as closed-die forging, so it is not suitable for applications that require high tolerances. Additionally, open-die forging is not as cost-effective as closed-die forging when it comes to manufacturing large quantities of parts. The table below summarizes the primary differences between open-die and closed-die forging:

Open-Die ForgingClosed-Die Forging
Suitable MaterialsAluminum, TitaniumAll Metals
ApplicationsAerospace, Heavy Industry, Alternative Energy IndustryContinuous Grain Flow, Canton Drop Forge

When it comes to selecting a forging process for your project, it is important to take into account the pros and cons of both open-die and closed-die forging. Open-die forging may be ideal for certain applications, but closed-die forging has its advantages as well. Consider the needs of your project carefully before making a decision.

What Is Closed-Die Forging?

Closed-die forging is a metalworking process that involves the use of matched dies to shape metal into a desired shape. It offers many advantages over open die forging, such as increased accuracy and repeatability, more intricate shapes, and larger quantities.

However, it also has its drawbacks. These include higher cost, a limited range of shapes, and difficulty with larger pieces.

In this discussion, we’ll explore the pros and cons of closed-die forging to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of this process.

Pros of Closed-Die Forging

You’re sure to get a superior product with closed-die forging, so why settle for anything less? Closed-die forging offers a variety of advantages, such as:

  • Producing consistently high-quality parts with tight dimensional tolerances
  • Ability to form complex shapes with a single operation
  • Increased strength and toughness of the material due to work hardening
  • Reduction in material waste due to the efficient design of the dies

Closed-die forging is ideal for producing precision parts from a variety of forgeable metals, such as aluminum, steel, and copper. The process starts with a heated metal billet, which is placed between two dies. The dies are then closed together using a closed die forging hammer.

This creates a contour type forging, with the dies forming the desired shape. The process is usually repeated multiple times to achieve the desired shape, strength, and quality. Closed-die forging processes are extremely efficient, and they produce parts that are stronger and more durable than those produced by other methods.

Cons of Closed-Die Forging

Despite its many advantages, closed-die forging also has some drawbacks that you should be aware of before deciding on this process. One of the cons of closed-die forging is the cost. Since it is a more complicated process, the cost of machining the die is more expensive than that of open die forging. Additionally, it can also be difficult to forge complex shapes or alloys with closed-die forging. The process also requires a piece of metal to be placed in a die that has been machined to the shape of the product. This means that the tolerances and surface finish become tighter, which can be difficult to achieve with the closed-die forging process.

Another disadvantage to closed-die forging is that it requires a closed-die drop forging hammer or press which is quite expensive. Additionally, since it is a pressure-driven process, the closed-die forging process may require higher axial pressure and consistent pressure in order to create complex forgings such as pressure vessels.

Metal can be shaped into complex shapes and alloysCost of machining die is more expensive than open die forging
Tighter tolerances and surface finishDifficult to forge complex shapes or alloys
Pressure driven processRequires closed-die drop forging hammer or press
Consistent pressureHigher axial pressure may be required


Ultimately, you must evaluate the pros and cons of each process to determine which is best for your needs. Open die forging and closed die forging are both great options depending on your specific needs.

Open die forging is preferred for larger parts and can accommodate a variety of materials from aluminum alloys to titanium alloys. It is often used in industries such as aerospace and is offered by companies like Excel Forging

Closed die forging is great for producing precise parts with continuous pressure exerted on the metal, such as cold rolled steel. It is often used in the production of machine components.

The pros and cons of both processes should be considered before making a decision. Closed die forging is great for precision parts, but is not suitable for larger parts. Open die forging is great for larger parts, but is not as precise as closed die forging. Additionally, the cost of open die forging can be higher than closed die forging, as it requires larger equipment and more labor.

It is important to consider the type of material you are working with when making a decision between open die forging and closed die forging. Closed die forging is great for materials like cold rolled steel, while open die forging is better for aluminum alloys and titanium alloys. Additionally, the size of the parts you are producing should also be considered. Open die forging is best for larger parts, while closed die forging is best for smaller, more precise parts.

Making the decision between open die forging and closed die forging can be challenging. It’s important to evaluate your specific needs before making a decision. Consider the size and type of material you are working with, as well as the cost of the process, before making a decision. Ultimately, the best option for you depends on your specific needs.

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